Course Content
Deepen your understanding of ocular anatomy as you delve further into the complex structures and functions of the eye. This lesson covers the eye's main parts and regions while developing your understanding of the principles of refraction and accommodation. You will also learn about the six extraocular muscles and gain valuable insight into how the eye moves.
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Key Takeaways

Chapter 5 of 5

In the Advanced Ocular Anatomy lesson, you learned that:

1. There Are 3 Layers in the Eye

  • The outer layer of the eye is a tough, white, opaque membrane called the sclera. The slight bulge in the sclera at the front of the eye is a clear, thin, dome-shaped tissue called the cornea
  • The middle layer is the choroid. The front of the choroid is the iris, the colored part of the eye. In the center of the iris is a circular opening called the pupil
  • The inner layer is the retina. The retina is a neural tissue that converts light entering the eye into an electrical signal. That signal will be carry out to the brain via the optic nerve for visual processing

2. There Are 3 Chambers in the Eye

  • The anterior chamber is the front part of the eye between the cornea and the iris
  • The posterior chamber is between the iris and lens
  • The vitreous chamber is between the lens and the back of the eye

3.    The main refractive element of the eye is the cornea. The crystalline lens is responsible for changing the eye’s focal point

4.    Accommodation is the ability of the eye to adapt itself to focus from distant to near objects

5.    The retina consists of 10 distinct layers of nerve cells, nerve fibers, light receptor cells, and supporting tissue

6.    The macula, near the center of the retina at the back of the eye, provides the sharp, detailed, central vision a person uses for focusing on what is directly in the line of sight. The rest of the retina provides side (peripheral) vision, which lets a person see shapes but not fine details

7.    There are three pairs of eye muscles. In combination, they allow the eye to move in any direction

8.    Three cranial nerves are responsible for the control of the extraocular muscles. Damage to those nerves can result in double vision

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